Navigating Dysfunctional Supervisory Relationships: A Journey to Mental Well-being and Professional Growth

In professional dynamics, a supervisor and supervisee’s relationship holds profound implications for mental well-being and career satisfaction. When this relationship veers into dysfunction, it can evoke emotional distress, undermine confidence, and trigger a range of psychological challenges. 

This topic is both tender and essential for me. For many years, I suffered from PTSD after having not one but three supervisors who had unfinished work, had additional mental health challenges, and suffered from personality disorders.  

I had one supervisor who would dissociate in the middle of our supervision. Sometimes, disassociation would last just a few minutes and other times, it would take up huge chunks of our supervision time. As a young and experienced therapist, I did not have the skills, nor did I feel I had any power to speak up for myself. So, I remained quiet until the day that the supervisor had a psychotic break in the middle of supervision. 

Another supervisor was quite inexperienced, and when they did not have the answer or the skills to lead, they would suddenly burst into aggression—laming, verbal attacks, the list goes on and on. 

The third supervisor made the first look easy and uncomplicated. The supervisor had both active eating disorders and a borderline personality diagnosis.  They split the department against itself and befriended human resources, only to use that to manipulate others.

Let’s delve into the signs indicating a problematic supervisory dynamic through the lens of psychotherapy and mental health while exploring strategies for self-care and navigating this terrain with resilience.

Communication Breakdown

Effective communication is indeed vital in a healthy supervisory relationship. When communication falters, it not only breeds uncertainty, anxiety, and feelings of inadequacy but can also significantly impact productivity and job satisfaction. 

Supervisors who exhibit poor communication skills often inadvertently create barriers hindering collaboration, creativity, and team effectiveness. For instance, providing vague feedback or avoiding difficult conversations can leave supervisees feeling adrift, unsure of how to proceed, and hesitant to seek clarification.

Example: Sarah, a diligent and conscientious employee, is increasingly frustrated with her supervisor’s communication style. Despite her best efforts to seek clarification on project expectations, she receives dismissive responses or ambiguous directives in return. This lack of clear guidance leaves Sarah anxious and uncertain about her performance, leading to self-doubt and second-guessing her abilities. As a result, Sarah’s productivity suffers, and she becomes increasingly demoralized in her role.

In this example, Sarah’s experience highlights the detrimental effects of poor communication within the supervisory relationship. Without clear and effective communication, Sarah’s confidence and job satisfaction are maintained, ultimately affecting her overall well-being and professional growth.

Addressing communication challenges within the supervisory relationship is essential for fostering a supportive and productive work environment. By prioritizing open dialogue, active listening, and clarity in communication, supervisors can empower their team members to thrive and succeed.

Control and Autonomy

Finding the right balance between autonomy and control is pivotal for cultivating a sense of competence and agency among team members. When this balance is disrupted, and supervisors veer towards micromanagement, it can harm their supervisees’ psychological well-being and performance.

Example: Mark, a talented and capable employee, struggles under the weight of his supervisor’s micromanagement. Despite his years of experience and expertise in his field, his supervisor scrutinizes and second-guesses Mark’s every decision and action. This constant oversight leaves Mark feeling suffocated and disempowered, as though his abilities and judgment are constantly under suspicion. Over time, Mark’s self-esteem diminishes, and his motivation wanes as he doubts his capabilities and contributions to the team.

In this example, Mark’s experience underscores the corrosive effects of micromanagement on an individual’s sense of autonomy, competence, and self-worth. When supervisors fail to trust their team members and impose excessive control, it undermines morale, stifles innovation, and erodes trust within the team.

To foster a healthier and more empowering work environment, supervisors must resist the temptation to micromanage and instead empower their team members to take ownership of their work. Supervisors can nurture a culture of trust, collaboration, and excellence by providing clear expectations, support, and opportunities for growth.

Psychological Safety

Cultivating a psychologically safe work environment promotes employee well-being, creativity, and productivity. When supervisors fail to foster a climate of trust and respect, it can have profound implications for their supervisees’ mental health and overall job satisfaction.

Example: Emily, a dedicated and hardworking employee, struggles due to her supervisor’s belittling and demeaning behavior. Despite her best efforts, Emily’s supervisor constantly criticizes her work in front of her peers, undermines her contributions, and dismisses her ideas. This pattern of behavior creates a pervasive atmosphere of fear and insecurity within the team, as other team members witness Emily’s mistreatment and fear facing similar treatment themselves. Over time, Emily’s confidence erodes, and she begins to experience symptoms of anxiety and emotional distress, impacting her performance and overall well-being.

In this example, Emily’s experience highlights the damaging effects of a supervisor’s toxic behavior on individual employees and the broader team dynamic. When supervisors fail to cultivate a culture of respect and open dialogue, it can fuel feelings of stress, burnout, and emotional exhaustion among their supervisees, ultimately compromising organizational performance and employee retention.

To address toxic work environments and promote psychological safety, supervisors must lead by example, demonstrating empathy, respect, and constructive feedback in their interactions with their team members. By fostering a culture of trust, collaboration, and mutual respect, supervisors can create an environment where employees feel valued, supported, and empowered to thrive.

Support and Validation

Supervisors serve as mentors and guides, shaping their supervisees’ professional growth and development. When supervisors fail to fulfill this role effectively, it can profoundly affect their supervisees’ morale and sense of self-worth.

Consider the following scenario:  Chris, a diligent and enthusiastic employee, consistently goes above and beyond in his work, seeking to make meaningful contributions to his team and organization. However, Chris’s supervisor rarely acknowledges or recognizes his achievements despite his dedication and efforts. Instead, Chris’s contributions are often overlooked or attributed to others, leaving him feeling invisible and undervalued. Over time, Chris’s motivation to excel wanes as he begins to question the significance of his efforts and the impact of his work. Without validation or acknowledgment from his supervisor, Chris’s sense of self-worth diminishes, leading to feelings of disconnection and disillusionment in his role.

In this example, Chris’s experience underscores the importance of supervisors providing their supervisees support, recognition, and validation. When supervisors fail to acknowledge their team members’ contributions or provide constructive feedback, it can erode morale, diminish motivation, and foster a sense of disconnection and disengagement among employees.

To foster a culture of support and recognition, supervisors must prioritize open communication, regular feedback, and opportunities for growth and development. By acknowledging their team members’ efforts and contributions, supervisors can cultivate a sense of belonging, motivation, and pride within their teams, ultimately enhancing individual and organizational performance.

Ethical Dilemmas

Ethical considerations form the foundation of a healthy and morally sound work environment, especially within supervision. When supervisors breach ethical boundaries, they compromise the integrity of the workplace and inflict significant psychological distress on their supervisees.


Example: Sarah, a dedicated and ethically sound employee, is in a morally compromising situation when her supervisor pressures her to engage in unethical practices to meet organizational targets. Despite Sarah’s objections and discomfort, her supervisor insists on cutting corners and disregarding ethical standards. Sarah feels torn between her professional integrity and the pressure to comply with her supervisor’s demands. The internal conflict and moral distress Sarah experiences take a toll on her mental well-being, causing significant psychological distress and anguish. She grapples with feelings of guilt, shame, and betrayal as she struggles to reconcile her values with her supervisor’s demands.

In this example, Sarah’s experience highlights the profound impact of supervisors’ unethical behavior on their supervisees’ mental health and moral integrity. When supervisors engage in favoritism, boundary violations, or exploitation, it creates a toxic work environment characterized by moral ambiguity and ethical compromise.

To address ethical dilemmas within the supervisory relationship, supervisors must uphold ethical standards, lead by example, and prioritize the well-being and integrity of their team members. By fostering a culture of transparency, accountability, and ethical conduct, supervisors can promote trust, integrity, and professional growth within their teams, safeguarding the psychological well-being of their supervisees in the process.

Navigating a Dysfunctional Supervisory Relationship 

Navigating a dysfunctional supervisory relationship from a mental health perspective requires prioritizing self-care, setting boundaries, and seeking support when needed. Here are some strategies to consider:

  1. Self-Reflection: Reflect on your emotional responses and triggers within the supervisory relationship. Practice self-awareness and mindfulness to recognize distress patterns and identify areas for personal growth.
  2. Establish Boundaries: Set clear boundaries to protect your mental health and well-being. Communicate your needs and limitations assertively, and assert your right to a safe and respectful work environment. 
  3. Seek Support: Reach out to trusted colleagues, mentors, or mental health professionals for support and validation. Share your experiences and emotions in a safe, non-judgmental space, and explore coping strategies and self-care practices to bolster resilience.

If the situation escalates and involves legal or contractual concerns, seeking legal support from an experienced professional or organization may be necessary to protect your rights and navigate the situation effectively.

  1. Advocate for Change: If feasible and safe, address your concerns with your supervisor or seek assistance from HR or organizational resources. Advocate for a healthier, more supportive work environment and collaborate with others to effect positive change.
  2. Explore Alternatives: If efforts to improve the supervisory relationship prove futile, consider exploring alternative employment opportunities or seeking supervision from a different individual or organization. Prioritize your mental health and well-being, and pursue paths that align with your values and goals.

Navigating a dysfunctional supervisory relationship from a mental health perspective requires courage, self-awareness, and resilience. By recognizing the signs of dysfunction, prioritizing self-care, and seeking support, individuals can reclaim agency over their professional journey and foster a work environment conducive to growth and well-being. 


Remember, you deserve to thrive in a nurturing, supportive workplace that honors your worth and values your contributions.

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